Mafia in action: Don Fidelone wanted $55 millions to free Canadian
Sept. 29 - Cuba offered to
free jailed Canadian executive Cy Tokmakjian in return for $55-million
and company assets, his company said on Monday, but the deal fell
through because the firm didn’t have the money and the businessman
wanted to clear his name.
Tokmakjian, 74, founder and chief executive of transportation firm
Tokmakjian Group, was sentenced to 15 years in prison on Friday after
being convicted of bribery and other economic charges in a case that
lawyers and diplomats called a chilling development for potential
After Tokmakjian was detained in 2011, company lawyers met with Cuban
officials about the case, said Lee Hacker, the Tokmakjian Group’s
vice-president for finance.
“They were ... told ‘We’re taking all your assets and in addition you’re
going to have to send another $55-million down before Cy will be
released,’” Hacker said.
It was the first time the company had revealed the Cuban demand, which
could not be immediately confirmed with authorities in Havana.
Tokmakjian’s case has been shrouded in secrecy – he was held for two and
a half years before being charged.
Hacker said he was told by the company’s lawyers that there was no basis
for the $55-million figure. “It was just a number that was thrown out,”
he told Reuters.
Other attempts at negotiation failed partly because Tokmakjian does not
want to admit to crimes he has not committed, his son Raffi said.
Cuba seized about $100-million worth of the firm’s assets on the island
and also sent two Tokmakjian aides to prison.
Hacker said Cuba could choose to expel Tokmakjian, or Cuba and Canada
could agree that he serve his sentence in Canada under a treaty that
governs the international transfer of prisoners.
Conservative Member of Parliament Peter Kent, whose constituency
includes the Tokmakjian Group’s headquarters, confirmed the businessman
could be transferred under the treaty.
But, he said Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, John Baird, had
suggested to his Cuban counterpart following the verdict that “the
humane thing to do would be to simply deport him.”
Hacker said the case stemmed partly from salary top-up payments to
Tokmakjian employees in joint venture businesses and a decision to hire
the wife of Cuba’s former deputy of minister of sugar, Nelson Labrada,
in Tokmakjian’s hotel division.
“They’re alleging that it was improper,” Hacker said. “But she worked
independently, had nothing to do with any sugar products or anything
that was in Nelson’s domain and ... we had the proper approvals on
Labrada was among 14 Cuban defendants in the case, all of whom were
convicted. He has been sentenced to 20 years in prison.
Hacker defended Tokmakjian Group’s practice of making incentive payments
to employees of joint ventures that were majority-owned by Cuban state
entities. Cy Tokmakjian was convicted of bribery partly on the basis of
“We would pay incentives to our staff in Cuba like every company does in
Cuba,” Hacker said.
Cuba legalized the payment of incentives, salary top ups, in 2007 but
the change did not extend to joint ventures, leaving companies exposed.
Hacker said the company did not believe at the time that there was
anything illegal about the payments.
The charge of economic crimes against the state involved the late
delivery of unspecified equipment. Tokmakjian distributed Hyundai
vehicles and construction equipment in Cuba, as well as other mining
The Tokmakjian Group, which did an estimated $80-million in business
annually with Cuba until it was shuttered in September, 2011, filed
claims against Cuba worth more than $200-million through the
International Chamber of Commerce in Paris and an Ontario court.
The case has strained Cuba’s relationship with Canada, one of its
biggest trading partners. Western diplomats have said it would dissuade
foreign investors at a time Cuba is actively seeking partners from
abroad to do business.
Cuba has yet to comment on the verdict or the sentencing. A call on
Monday to the Cuban embassy in Ottawa for comment was not returned.
The Globe and Mail
one day: Cuba bans Che Guevara and Hugo Chavez perfumes
Sept. 27 -
El Nuevo Herald (Spanish)
The Cuban government has said
it will take disciplinary action against a state pharmaceutical company
that created perfumes named Ernesto Che Guevara and Hugo Chavez.
In a statement in the official Granma newspaper, the government
described the project as "a serious error".
"The symbols of the Revolution are and will always be sacred," it read.
The colognes - Ernesto and Hugo - were unveiled on Thursday by state a
laboratory in the capital, Havana.
Labiofam said Ernesto, the cologne named after the Argentine-born
revolutionary who help Fidel Castro take over in Cuba in 1959, would be
a woodsy and refreshing citric scent with notes of talcum powder.
Hugo, named after the late Venezuelan president, would offer a softer,
fruitier fragrance with hints of mango and papaya.
"They will be very attractive colognes, but the names also mean a lot to
us," said Isabel Gonzalez, vice-president for research and development
for Labiofam during the launch.
But the project was mocked in the social networks and criticized by
supporters of the Cuban Revolution, who considered it disrespectful.
Labiofam had been in the process of developing stylized bottles and
labels for the products before putting them on sale in Cuba and
"We didn't want to create propaganda, but rather pay homage to them and
help their names endure," said on Thursday Cuban biochemist Mario
Valdes, who led the scent design team.
The company said it had obtained the agreement of the families of Che
Guevara and Hugo Chavez to use their names in the colognes. But that has
now been denied by the Cuban government.
"The details of this irresponsible action were discussed in detail on
Friday with the company's director and the employees who presented the
products, which were still being developed," read the statement of the
Executive Committee of the Ministers' Council, headed by Cuban President
"The appropriate measures will be taken to deal with this serious error.
"Such initiatives will never be accepted either by our people or by the
business in a country with no laws: Canadian Businessman receives a
Sept. 27 - A Canadian
automobile executive has been sentenced to 15 years in Cuban prison on
corruption-related charges that officials here call part of a broad
campaign against graft, his company said Saturday.
Ontario-based Tokmakjian Group said the charges against its president,
Cy Tokmakjian, 74, were concocted as an excuse to seize the automotive
firm's $100 million in assets in Cuba. The company described the case
Saturday as "absurd" and a "travesty of justice."
The company's Cuban offices were raided in 2011 as Cuba launched an
anti-graft drive that has swept up foreign business executives from at
least five nations as well as government officials and dozens of Cuban
employees at key state-run companies.
Foreign business people have long considered payoffs ranging from a free
meal to cash deposits in overseas accounts to be an unavoidable cost of
doing business in Cuba. President Raul Castro has said that rooting out
rampant corruption is one of the country's most important challenges.
More than 150 foreign business people and dozens of small South American
and European companies have been kicked out of the country under the
anti-graft drive. Several dozen defendants have ended up in jail,
including a few foreigners and high government officials accused of
influence-peddling and taking bribes.
Such cases, and questions about their fairness, have chilled many
current and potential investors in Cuba, which is trying to attract
foreign capital to jumpstart the stagnant economy.
Cuba's judicial system is known for speedy proceedings behind closed
doors with little or no media access. Cuban officials have said little
about the Tokmakjian case beyond announcing last year that the
Tokmakjian Group's operating license had been rescinded due to
unspecified actions "that are contrary to the principles and ethics that
should characterize commercial activity, and contravene Cuban judicial
Tokmakjian managers Claudio Vetere and Marco Puche got 12- and 8-year
sentences, respectively, company vice president Lee Hacker told The
Associated Press. He said the company's lawyers were notified of the
sentences on Friday.
The Canadian company said its president had been allowed to call only
four of the 18 expert witnesses he wanted to testify.
"The deception taking place in Cuba is beyond imagination," the company
said. "Lack of due process doesn't begin to describe the travesty of
couple reunited in U.S. after year-long sea odyssey
Sept. 26 - Almost a year
after he smuggled his way out of Cuba on a homemade boat, Jose Caballero
was reunited late Thursday with his wife who survived a harrowing sea
voyage of her own last month.
The two embraced tightly at the Greyhound bus terminal in Austin, Texas,
hours after Mailin Perez crossed the border from Mexico, taking
advantage of a U.S. policy that allows entry to Cubans arriving by land.
"Right now we're so happy, but exhausted from all the tension. There
were so many desperate moments," said Caballero.
Perez, 30, was one of a group of Cuban migrants rescued at sea by
Mexican fishermen this month off the Yucatan peninsula badly sunburned
and dehydrated after three weeks adrift.
Only 15 of the 32 passengers of her boat survived the journey from
Manzanillo in eastern Cuba, with 15 dying at sea, and two more dying
after they were rescued.
"It was such a battle to get here," Perez said later, as she sat down to
a traditional Cuban dinner of chicken, and "congri" (rice and beans)
prepared by her husband. "I'm happy, but sad for the ones who didn't
The group set off on August 7, and were forced to fashion a makeshift
sail for their vessel after the motor failed early in the journey. One
by one the passengers died as supplies of food, and then water, ran out.
Their bodies were thrown overboard.
Caballero, 40, said his wife lost eight cousins on the boat, adding that
she had been an assistant at a blood bank in Cuba and brought medical
supplies with her.
"For her it's going to be hard. Right now she is happy she made it, but
imagine the trauma she feels," he said.
Caballero left Cuba by the same route in December on a boat carrying 47
people, and is now a maintenance worker at a trucking company in Austin.
"We were at sea for only nine days and I still have nightmares about
drowning," he said.
Mexican officials detained the Cubans for two weeks before releasing
them, saying Cuba had not recognized them as its citizens.
Under the "wet foot, dry foot policy" of the United States, Cuban
migrants who make it onto U.S. soil are allowed to remain while those
intercepted at sea are turned back.
Cubans seeking to flee the communist-run island are heading in
increasing numbers to Central America or southern Mexico and then making
a long journey overland to reach the United States.
U.S. authorities say 16,200 Cubans arrived without visas at the border
with Mexico in the past 11 months, the highest number in a decade.
Caballero said his wife had previously tried unsuccessfully to leave
Cuba four times by boat and he tried to persuade her not to try again.
"But there was no stopping her," he said.
The couple left two children behind with relatives in Cuba, a boy aged
11 and a girl aged four.
"That's our hope now, to bring them to the United States," said
Caballero. "But not the way we came. Not by sea."
flee eastern Cuba, a town mourns those lost at sea
Sept. 17 - Eighteen-year-old
Miguel Lopez Maldonado boarded a homemade boat last month with 31
others, leaving behind this sleepy fishing town on Cuba's southeast
coast to seek a new life in the United States.
The motor broke down after a couple days, and the craft drifted for
three weeks. One by one, the passengers died of thirst, the survivors
left with no option but to throw the bodies overboard.
By the time the Mexican navy spotted them 150 miles off the Yucatan
peninsula, 15 had died, including Lopez Maldonado. Of the 17 rescued,
two died in a Mexican hospital.
Lopez Maldonado's parents say they don't understand why their son left.
But others here say many young Cubans see no future in a state-run
economy, under U.S. sanctions for 50 years, with few opportunities for
"Young people today do not think like my generation did. They are
looking for something more that they can’t find here," the dead teen's
father, Miguel Lopez Vega, said, sobbing, in the living room of the
family's home as neighbors stopped by to offer comfort.
"My son wanted to leave Cuba since he was 15. He didn’t want to live in
The tragedy, the worst Cuban migrant boat disaster in two decades, is
part of a growing illegal exodus from eastern Cuba - a region famous as
the launching pad of the 1959 revolution in the nearby Sierra Maestra
U.S. authorities say 14,000 Cubans arrived without visas at the border
with Mexico in the past 11 months, the highest number in a decade.
In Manzanillo, a run-down colonial city of 130,000 in eastern Granma
province, residents say as many as five boats, with up to 30 passengers,
depart in weeks with favorable weather.
Passengers in last month's voyage, who were aged 16 to 36, each paid the
equivalent of $400 to $600 for the 675-mile trip.
The situation threatens to further strain relations between Cuba and the
United States. Cuba argues that U.S. policy foments illegal and
dangerous departures by granting Cubans a special right of entry not
offered to other nationalities.
The wave of migration also exposes the fragility of President Raul
Castro's market-oriented reforms, in which independent farming and small
businesses have been legalized in an attempt rebuild a private sector
wiped out in 1959.
TEARS AND PRAYERS
Joaquín de La Paz, who works at a rice mill, lost a daughter, a son and
two grandsons in last month's tragedy. He said economic hardship and a
lack of jobs in Manzanillo, once a busy port handling sugar from nearby
cane fields, had made people desperate.
De La Paz, 62, said that even though his daughter was a teacher and his
son worked for the health ministry, neither earned enough to satisfy
"The kids see people leave Cuba who never even had a bicycle, and then
by the time they return within a year their family situation is
improved," he said.
"Look at me. After 43 years of work, I haven't been able to acquire
anything, except sadness and sorrow for my family."
One granddaughter decided at the last minute not to join her mother and
brother, but De la Paz frets that she will be next. The girl’s
16-year-old brother, Hector, was rescued, but he died on the way to a
De la Paz's wife, Xiomara Milan, sobbed alongside him as she recounted
how they raised pigs to feed the family. She said all she had left was
the hope her grandson would be returned for burial, adding the family
did not have the money to repatriate his body.
Family members and neighbors said the government and state-run media
have been silent about the tragedy. Only the Catholic Church has offered
solace, they said.
A Mass for the victims was held in the town's main Catholic church on
Friday, and prayers were offered "for those who feel the need to find
another country to live." One speaker urged people to think hard about
the decision and "look for safer paths."
There were also prayers that Cuban authorities "achieve the necessary
material and spiritual progress" of the country.
Relatives of the victims said their only information has come from
survivors detained by immigration authorities in Mexico, who have been
allowed to call home twice a week.
They are pleading with Mexican authorities not to deport the survivors
back to Cuba, and to allow them to continue their journey to the U.S.
Niurka Aguilar, the mother of one survivor, Maylin Perez, said it was
her daughter's fifth attempt to leave. Perez, 30, was hoping to join her
husband, who made the trip nine months ago and now lives in Texas.
"If they send her back, she will just try again," said Aguilar.
A 62 year
old Canadian man says he lost $90,000 when he 'married' a 25 year old
Sept. 16 - A Quebec man says
he's out $90,000 after falling in love with a Cuban woman, marrying her,
and moving her to Canada.
He also claims that when she arrived, she was pregnant with another
man's baby and left him after six days.
Michel Beaudry told QMI Agency that he wants to share his story to help
other Canadians avoid making the same mistake.
The 62-year-old met a 25-year-old woman while on an all-inclusive Cuban
vacation in March 2013.
"At first," said Beaudry, "I thought it was impossible that she would
want to be with me."
The relationship blossomed, bolstered by Beaudry making about 10 trips
to Cuba to visit. They married in September 2013.
In June 2014, his wife was given permission by the Canadian government
to move to Canada.
From the first day, she explained to Beaudry that she didn't want to
lead a normal married life with him.
"She said she loved me like a father figure. I slept on the sofa while
she slept in my room."
Beaudry says his wife also announced she was pregnant. He had a
vasectomy, and knew he could be responsible for a child that wasn't his.
Six days after her arrival, she asked for $50,000 to buy a home for her
relatives in Cuba. When Beaudry refused, she packed her bags and left.
"She lied all along," said Beaudry. "She only wanted money."
Reynaldo Marquez, Beaudry's lawyer, told QMI that they are seeking an
annulment of the marriage. "I want her to leave the country," Beaudry
The Castro brothers made $700 million in one year from their slave
doctors working in Brazil
Sept. 4 - Since August 2013,
Cuba has collected over US$700m from the Brazilian government in
exchange for the services of 11,456 Cuban medical professionals working
in over 2,700 towns and cities across the country. The Brazilian
government recently announced that the programme will continue next
year, with total payments amounting to US$511m.
The Cuban doctors participate in Brazil's Mais Médicos (More Doctors)
programme, which aims to bring medical services to remote or underserved
parts of the country by employing overseas doctors, mainly from Cuba. It
was created in response to the mass protests that rocked Brazil in June
2013 over the poor quality of public services, including healthcare. The
programme pays each participant a salary of around US$4,500 a month.
However, the participation of Cuban doctors is organised through the Pan
American Health Organization (PAHO). The Brazilian government disburses
the payments to the PAHO, which then transfers the monies to the Cuban
government after taking a 5% administrative commission. The Cuban
government pays the medical professionals working in Brazil a monthly
salary of US$1,245, and pockets the rest.
With 440,000 health professionals in a country of 11m people, Cuba has
one of the best doctor-to-patient ratios in the world. As the government
has sought to cut costs and "update" the economy since 2008 under
President Raúl Castro, it has cut the number of doctors operating on the
island and offered to sell their services abroad.
Currently, the sale of services abroad is Cuba's largest source of hard
currency: in 2014, the government estimates that it will collect
US$8.2bn from these deals. Around 50,000 Cuban health professionals work
in 66 countries worldwide, although around half of those work in
Venezuela, with an additional 11,456 in Brazil. The agreements with
other foreign countries are similar to the Brazilian setup, with Cuban
doctors paid less than the salary of local medical staff, and the
remainder of their pay being transferred to the Cuban government.
Impact on the forecast
The Economist Intelligence Unit is not changing its macroeconomic
forecasts in light of the renewal of the programme, but it will come as
a relief to the Cuban government and will help to mitigate the
scaling-back of the sale of professional services to Venezuela.
Noticias Martí (Español)
Cuba Strengthens Embargo: Limits Flow of Necessary Goods from US to
Sept. 3 - The Cuban
government has implemented new laws Monday that strengthen the embargo
between itself and the United States--not limiting tourism from the West
into the country, but limiting the transport of necessary goods like
underwear and soap from Cuban families in the United States to their
relatives on the island.
The new law, Fox News reports, significantly reduces the amount of goods
Cuban Americans can bring in their luggage and ship via boat from the
United States. It also affects Westerners in other countries with strong
Cuban populations, such as Spain, but experts believe it will not affect
tourists who have no family on the island; they will be able to continue
to pack their luggage freely.
While the United States bans tourism to the island, Cuban Americans with
relatives on the island are legally allowed to bypass the embargo and
visit the island, particularly because they are unlikely to spend money
on tourism and support the regime. They, instead, spend their money on
helping Cubans with no connections to the government who cannot leave
Fox News reports that nearly $2 billion a year is spent on goods in the
United States that Cuban Americans take home to their families. These
goods include anything from underwear and shampoo to car tires--items
necessary to live in Cuba that are very difficult to come by without
having connections in the Castro government. "All the clothes and shoes
that I have come from my granddaughters in Spain or my siblings in the
U.S," one 75-year-old Cuban woman tells the Associated Press. She is
worried she will run out of clothes due to Cuba's newly imposed embargo.
Opponents of the United States embargo on the Cuban communist regime,
which bans Americans from spending money on tourism that supports the
terrorist government, often claim that the United States does more harm
than good to impoverished Cubans in maintaining the policy. Rarely does
one hear the same critics raise their voices when the Castro government
imposes its own restrictions, which only limit the influx of goods that
keep many lives afloat on the island, rather than feeding directly into
the government's coffers.
In addition to limiting the amount of goods going to average Cubans, the
Associated Press notes that reducing the number of items allowed into
the country forces Cubans abroad to send money via wire transfers that
would have otherwise been spent directly on goods. While the Cuban
government can do little to steal a cut of the price of one pair of
underwear, it easily imposes high duties on money coming in from abroad,
funding the lavish lifestyles of the Castro elite.
Cuban Americans, according to a poll released in June by Florida
International University, strongly support ending the trade embargo on
Cuba, but not reducing pressure on the communist government to change.
Given the trade embargo's decades-long legacy of not toppling the Castro
regime, Cuban Americans surveyed appear to support diversifying attempts
to weaken and destroy the communist enterprise, including keeping Cuba
on the United States' list of state sponsors of terrorism. The last time
the question was asked in 2007, 71% of Cuban Americans supported "exile
military attacks" on Cuba.
protesting against the regime on March 28 in Havana's famous Galiano
that brainwashing doesn't work?
Dec. 7 - Elian González after
14 years of brainwashing: "Fidel Castro for me is like a father. I
don't profess to have any religion but if I did my god would be Fidel
Castro. He is like a ship that knew to take his crew on the right path"
Ladies in White protest in Havana and stopped from marching in Holguín
Dec. 3 - Video of a protest
by the Ladies in White on Sunday December 1 at Parque Gandhi in Havana
and an attempt to march in Holguin, but were stopped by Castro's police
is brutally attacked by Castro's police for expressing her opinions
Nov. 4 - Anonymous Venezuela
has a warning: This is the future of Venezuela unless they get rid of
Maduro and the other puppets under the control of the Castro brothers.
Sáncez's presentation at Google Ideas Summit
October 26 - Yoani Sánchez
explains how Internet without Internet is used by Cubans inside the
Learn how you can help
promote Internet without Internet in Cuba:
The Real Cuba
Also on Twitter:
@WebPaqsforCuba On Facebook:
Paquetes Web Para Cuba
Learn about a new
technology that allows Cubans in Cuba have access to websites banned by
the Castro regime and how you can help:
The Real Cuba
Also on Twitter:
@WebPaqsforCuba On Facebook:
Paquetes Web Para Cuba
another act of repudiation against members of UNPACU
Oct. 9 - This took place in
Cardenas on Sunday October 6, 2013
to see the video
Cuban authorities are worried about web paqs circulating inside Cuba
Sept. 13 - Tweet from Yoani
"Authorities worried because
of "packages" or "combos" with a collection of audiovisuals in the black
As I have said before,
projects like Web Paqs for Cuba are the best way to bypass the
blockade at the Internet, put in place by the Castro dictatorship to
prevent Cubans in the island from knowing what's happening inside Cuba
and in the rest of the world.
You can learn more about Web
Paqs for Cuba and how you can get involved in this project at
La Singularidad Cuba (Español)
The Real Cuba
(English) Twitter and
at the Hijas de Galicia Hospital, Luyanó, Havana, Cuba
July 8 - Video taken in April
of this year at the Hijas de Galicia Hospital, one of the hospitals for
Cubans who do not have hard currency to pay the Castro brothers.
Very different from the
hospital where they took Micahel Moore and the hospitals that are used
by foreigners who pay with dollars.
Click here to see the video
video shows Bahamian guards brutally abusing Cuban rafters
June 15 - June 15 - This
clandestine video taking inside a Bahamian jail, shows a guard kicking
and insulting Cuban rafters who were trying to reach the United States
and ended up in the Bahamas.
There should be a tourism boycott of the Bahamas, unless the Bahamian
government orders the arrest and prosecution of this brutal thug and
stops abusing Cuban rafters who are risking their lives in search for
Click here to see the video
Yoani Sánchez about the Web Paqs for Cuba project
about Paquetes Web Para Cuba
Visit our page about
Paquetes Web Para Cuba
You can also visit us on
Facebook to find all information about the Internet Web Paqs for Cuba, a
project to help the Cuban people have access to the websites that are
blocked by the Cuban regime.
Make sure to click on 'Like"
as a sign of support
Paquetes Web Para Cuba
daily ABC has an article about the false myth of Cuba's healthcare
Foto de la
versión impresa del reportaje en ABC
March 17 - On Thursday of
last week, Carmen Muñoz a columnist for Spanish daily ABC, called me to
ask for permission to use the photos at therealcuba.com for an article
about the false myth of Cuba's healthcare.
I was able to send her many
of the photos on high resolution to use on the print edition of the
The article was published on
Sunday on ABC and is also on their web page at
Cuban blogger Orlando Luis Pardo about Paquetes Web Para Cuba
Our new page:
Fidel Castro, the
World's oldest terrorist
My interview with
March 29 - I was interviewed by Ed Kasputis, of Baseball PhD, about
baseball in Cuba before Castro and about the two Cubas, the one for
foreigners and the one for regular Cubans.
Ed did a previous program with Mr. Sports Travel of San Diego, CA, about
the five top international baseball destinations and was surprised to
find out that the #1 destination was Cuba.
He received some nice pictures of Cuba and was ready to book a trip when
he saw therealcuba.com and changed his mind.
He interviewed me as part of a program about the new Marlins Stadium and
I was able to talk about baseball in Cuba before Castro and then we had
a long chat about what is the reality of life in Cuba under Castro.
The program lasts 53 minutes, if you are not a baseball fan and just
want to hear my interview about Cuba use your mouse to move the dial to
here to listen
Listen to Fidel Castro
For those who think that the Cuban people chose the system imposed by
the Castro brothers, here are some of the things that Fidel Castro said
and promised when he gained power
photos of Cuba's prisons, missile installations, military bases and
A look at
Havana before the Castro brothers destroyed it
We have new photos of
Havana taken in October of last year
Oct. 9 - A friend sent me around two dozen photos of Havana that he took
at the beginning of this month.
Some of them are very sad, because they show how Havana has been
completely destroyed by this gang of human termites.
Some others are hard to believe, including this one of goats having
"lunch" off the dumpsters on a Havana street.
to see them
Socio-Economic Conditions in Pre-Castro
Dec. 17 - Cuba Facts is an ongoing series of succinct
fact sheets on various topics, including, but not limited to, political
structure, health, economy, education, nutrition, labor, business,
foreign investment, and demographics, published and updated on a regular
basis by the Cuba Transition Project staff at the University of Miami.
Click here to learn the truth about Cuba's Health, Education,
Personal Consumption and much more in pre-Castro Cuba.
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